Computer security, cybersecurity or information technology security (IT security) is the protection of computer systems and networks from information disclosure, theft of or damage to their hardware, software, or electronic data, as well as from the disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.
The field is becoming increasingly significant due to the increased reliance on computer systems, the Internet and wireless network standards such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi, and due to the growth of “smart” devices, including smartphones, televisions, and the various devices that constitute the “Internet of things“. Owing to its complexity, both in terms of politics and technology, cybersecurity is also one of the major challenges in the contemporary world.The April 1967 session organized by Willis Ware at the Spring Joint Computer Conference, and the later publication of the Ware Report, were foundational moments in the history of the field of computer security. Ware’s work straddled the intersection of material, cultural, political, and social concerns.
A 1977 NIST publication introduced the “CIA triad” of Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability as a clear and simple way to describe key security goals. While still relevant, many more elaborate frameworks have since been proposed.
However, the 1970s and 1980s didn’t have any grave computer threats because computers and the internet were still developing, and security threats were easily identifiable. Most often, threats came from malicious insiders who gained unauthorized access to sensitive documents and files. Although malware and network breaches existed during the early years, they did not use them for financial gain. However, by the second half of the 1970s, established computer firms like IBM started offering commercial access control systems and computer security software products.